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The Virtues of Fasting 'Ashura'

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The Virtues of Fasting 'Ashura'
« on: September 29, 2017, 06:50:38 PM »
Al hamdulillah wa solatu wa salam'ala rosulullah wa'ala Ahlihi wa Asiabii ajma'in. wa ba'ad, As-salam alaykum waramatullah wabarakatuh.

Brothers and sisters, biidhinillah this evening we shall briefly discuss the 'Ashura and it's virtues

Foremost, *Which Day is 'Ashura' ?*

An-Nawawi ( may Allah have mercy on him ) said:
" 'Ashura' and Tasu'a' are two elongated names [the vowels are elongated] as is stated in books on the Arabic language. Our companions said: 'Ashura' is the tenth day of Muharram and Tasu'a' is the ninth day. This is our opinion, and that of the majority of scholars.

 This is the apparent meaning of the ahadith and is what we understand from the general wording. It is also what is usually understood by scholars of the language."
— Al-Majmu'

'Ashura' is an Islamic name that was not known at the time of Jahiliyyah . [Kashshaf al-Qina' , part 2, Sawm Muharram]

Ibn Qudamah ( may Allah have mercy on him ) said: "'Ashura' is the tenth day of Muharram. This is the opinion of Sa'id ibn al-Musayyib and al-Hasan. It was what was reported by Ibn 'Abbas, who said:

 'The Messenger of Allah ( peace and blessings of Allah be upon him ) commanded us to fast 'Ashura' , the tenth day of Muharram.' [Reported by at-Tirmidhi, who said, a sahih hasan hadith ]
 It was reported that Ibn 'Abbas said: 'The ninth,' and reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him ) used to fast the ninth. [Reported by Muslim] 'Ata' reported that he said, 'Fast the ninth and the tenth, and do not be like the Jews.' If this is understood, we can say on this basis that it is mustahabb (encouraged) to fast on the ninth and the tenth, for that reason. This is what Ahmad said, and it is the opinion of Ishaq."

The Virtues of Fasting 'Ashura'

Ibn 'Abbas (may Allah be pleased with them both) said:
"I never saw the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him ) so keen to fast any day and give it priority over any other than this day, the day of 'Ashura' , and this month, meaning Ramadhan ."
— Reported by Al-Bukhari, 1867
The meaning of his being keen was that he intended to fast on that day in the hope of earning the reward for doing so. The Prophet ( peace and blessings of Allah be upon him ) said: "For fasting the day of 'Ashura', I hope that Allah will accept it as expiation for the year that went before." [Reported by Muslim, 1976] This is from the bounty of Allah towards us: for fasting one day He gives us expiation for the sins of a whole year. And Allah is the Owner of Great Bounty.


_*Fasting on 'Ashura' even if it is a Saturday or a Friday*_

At-Tahawi ( may Allah have mercy on him ) said: "The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him ) allowed us to fast on 'Ashura' and urged us to do so. He did not say that if it falls on a Saturday we should not fast. This is evidence that all days of the week are included in this. In our view – and Allah knows best – it could be the case that even if this is true (that it is not allowed to fast on Saturdays), it is so that we do not venerate this day and refrain from food, drink and intercourse, as the Jews do. As for the one who fasts on a Saturday without intending to venerate it, and does not do so because the Jews regard it as blessed, then this is not makruh …"
 [Mushkil al-Athar , part 2, Bab Sawm Yawm as-Sabt ]

The author of Al-Minhaj said: "It is disliked ( makruh ) to fast on a Friday alone … But it is no longer makruh if you add another day to it, as mentioned in the sahih report to that effect. A person may fast on a Friday if it coincides with his habitual fast, or he is fasting in fulfilment of a vow, or he is making up an obligatory fast that he has missed, as was stated in a sahih report."

Ash-Sharih said in Tuhfat al-Muhtaj : "If it coincides with his habitual fast – i.e., such as if he fasts alternate days, and a day that he fasts happens to be a Friday, if he is fasting in fulfilment of a vow, etc." – this also applies to fasting on days prescribed in Shari'ah , such as 'Ashura' or 'Arafah. [Tuhfat al-Muhtaj , part 3, Bab Sawm al-Tatawwu' ]

Al-Bahuti (may Allah have mercy on him ) said: "It is makruh to deliberately single out a Saturday for fasting, because of the hadith of 'Abdullah ibn Bishr, who reported from his sister: 'Do not fast on Saturdays except in the case of obligatory fasts' [reported by Ahmad with a jayyid isnad and by al-Hakim, who said: according to the conditions of al-Bukhari], and because it is a day that is venerated by the Jews, so singling it out for fasting means being like them … except when a Friday or Saturday coincides with a day when Muslims habitually fast, such as when it coincides with the day of 'Arafah or the day of 'Ashura' , and a person has the habit of fasting on these days, in which case it is not makruh , because a person's habit carries some weight."
 [Kashshaf al-Qina' , part 2, Bab Sawm al-Tatawwu' ]

As-salam alaykum waramatullah wabarakatuh

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